Tax rates and payment
Employment income is charged to both income tax (as 'general' income) and to Class 1 National Insurance
Contributions. Tax and NIC are normally paid by the employer through the PAYE system, but an employee whose
tax is not fully paid should complete a tax return and settle the liability as described on
If the tax underpaid is up to £2,000 and the 2004/05 tax return is submitted by 30 September 2005,
the underpayment can be settled through PAYE for 2006/07 rather than being collected on 31 January 2006.
Class 1 NIC rates 2005/06
Employers and employees both contribute. Employee contributions used to be capped at the upper earnings
limit until the end of 2002/03, but a charge of 1% now applies to all pay above the primary threshold.
|LEL: lower earnings limit
|PT: primary threshold
|UEL: upper earnings limit
No NIC are payable by employee or employer on earnings up to the PT.
Earnings between the LEL and the PT must be reported by the employer, and the employee receives credit towards
the State Pension, but no NIC are payable.
Rates of NIC on earnings above the PT depend on whether the employee is within the State Second Pension (S2P),
or whether the employer has 'contracted out' using a final salary (FS) or money purchase (MP) scheme.
|PT - UEL
Contracting-out employers receive a special rebate on earnings between the LEL and the PT.
A person with more than one employment can defer the payment of some employee NIC until after the end of the tax
year, when the total amount payable can be checked and limited so the full 11% rate is only applied to income
between the PT and the UEL.
Benefits in kind
Benefits in kind are usually valued at a 'cash equivalent' and are then charged to income tax on the employee
and Class 1A NIC (at 12.8%) on the employer. The cash equivalent is generally based on the cost to the employer
of providing the benefit, but the following are charged according to a statutory formula.
Cars provided by the employer: a percentage of the original list price of the car,
depending on the CO2 emissions rating of the car.
|15% of list price
||150, 155 etc.
||145, 150 etc.
|max 35% benefit
For diesel cars add 3% (min. is 18%, max. still 35%). There is no discount for the level of business mileage
or the age of the car, but deduct employee contributions for private use.
Fuel provided by the employer for private use in a company car is charged without
reduction for contributions unless all private fuel is paid for by the employee.
To calculate the taxable amount the percentage used to calculate car benefit is applied to a standard figure of
Vans provided by the employer are charged at a flat rate of £500 (£350
if the van is over four years old at the end of the tax year). If private use is restricted to home-to-work travel,
there is no tax charge for 2005/06 and later years.
Loans of money of over £5,000 are charged on the excess of the official rate
(5%) over any interest actually paid by the employee to the employer.
Use of assets is charged at 20% of the original cost of the assets to the employer,
or the value when first made available to the employee, less any amount paid by the employee for private use.
Main exempt benefits in kind
Many benefits in kind are not charged to tax. A full list cannot be given here, but some of the principal ones are:
- providing a mobile phone, even with private use (but paying the bills on the employee's own phone remains chargeable)
- lending computer equipment where the 20% charge would be up to £500 (ie value up to £2,500)
- the provision of 'green transport' such as works buses or the use of a bicycle for commuting.
Exempt mileage allowances: employee's own car
|First 10,000 miles
Exempt fuel-only allowances: company car
|1400cc or less
|1401cc - 2000cc
Other exempt payments to or for employees
- mileage allowances of up to 24p per mile for business use of the employee's motorcycle or 20p per mile
for a pedal cycle
- contributions to approved pension schemes
- payments of up to £5 a night when staying away for 'personal incidental expenses' (£10 if
Employee share schemes
Generally, employees are charged to income tax on the value of shares that they are given or issued by their
employer, less any amount paid for the shares. This applies to 'free shares' and to shares acquired under option
schemes. NIC is also charged if the company is quoted, as the shares can be easily sold.
If the employer operates one of these 'Revenue-approved' share schemes, the tax charge may be eliminated,
reduced or deferred.
Share incentive plans (SIP)
- 'free shares' to £3,000pa
- 'partnership shares' (employee buys with pre-tax salary) max £1,500pa, employer can 'match' with up to 2 more for each one purchased.
- shares left in the scheme for at least 5 years: no income tax or CGT on the value when they leave the scheme.
Enterprise management incentives - small trading companies can grant options to buy
up to £100,000 worth of shares to selected employees.
Company share option plans - share options to buy up to £30,000 of shares can
be granted to employees.
Approved savings-related share option plans - employees contribute to a Save As You
Earn plan (max. £250 a month) to save the money needed to exercise options.
With approved option schemes, the employee pays CGT on sale of the shares rather than income tax/NIC on
exercising the options. The CGT charge is likely to be smaller and later than the IT/NIC.